Australian References:

  1. ACMA, Captioning,
  2. ACMA, Captioning Quality – the Standard,—the-standard
  3. Arts Access Victoria, Universal Acess Symbols,
  4. Australian Government, Broadcasting Services (Television Captioning) Standard 2013,
  5. Australian Hearing, Causes of hearing loss in Australia,
  6. Australian Network on Disability, Stats and Facts,
  7. Deaf Australian Inc., Captioning,

International References:

  1. W3C Understanding WCAG 2.0, Captions, Pre-recorded,
  2. U.S. Federal Communications Commission, Captioning of Internet Video Programming,
  3. U.S. Federal Communications Commission, Closed Captioning Quality Report and Order, Declaratory Ruling, FNPRM,
  4. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD),  Captions for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Viewers,


  1. Adding a caption file,
  2. Supported caption files,


  1. Facebook, How do I add captions to my video?